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Apollo 13 war die siebte bemannte Raumfahrtmission im Apollo-Programm der US-amerikanischen Raumfahrtbehörde NASA mit dem Ziel der dritten bemannten Mondlandung. Apollo 13 war die siebte bemannte Raumfahrtmission im Apollo-Programm der US-amerikanischen Raumfahrtbehörde NASA mit dem Ziel der dritten. Die NASA-Astronauten Jack Swigert, James Lovell und Fred Haise bereiteten sich an jenem April im Raumschiff Apollo 13 auf die dritte. Der „Apollo 13“-Astronaut Jack Swigert hatte das Personal im Kontrollzentrum mit dem Spruch „Houston, we've had a problem here“ alarmiert. ©. Vor 50 Jahren startete "Apollo 13" zum Mond. Die Mission gilt bis heute als eine der dramatischsten Beinahe-Katastrophen und ist zugleich ein.

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50 Jahre Nasa: Im April sollte die „Apollo 13"-Mission die dritte Reise zum Mond werden, doch sie endete in einer Beinahe-Katastrophe. Vor 40 Jahren scheiterte die Mondmission Apollo Bis heute sind James Lovell, John Swigert und Fred Haise die Menschen, die am. Der „Apollo 13“-Astronaut Jack Swigert hatte das Personal im Kontrollzentrum mit dem Spruch „Houston, we've had a problem here“ alarmiert. ©. Apollo13

Kennedy challenged his nation to land an astronaut on the Moon by the end of the decade, with a safe return to Earth.

The mission returned to Earth on July 24, , fulfilling Kennedy's challenge. After the excitement of Apollo 11, the general public grew apathetic towards the space program and Congress continued to cut NASA's budget; Apollo 20 was canceled.

Even before the first U. Kraft Jr. He was vindicated by post-mission analysis, and implemented a rule that during the mission, the flight director's word was absolute [10] —to overrule him, NASA would have to fire him on the spot.

Apollo 13 was to be the second H mission , meant to demonstrate precision lunar landings and explore specific sites on the Moon.

He held a B. He assigned them to the backup crew because no other veteran astronauts were available. However, management felt Shepard needed more training time, as he had only recently resumed active status after surgery for an inner ear disorder , and had not flown since Thus Lovell's crew himself, Haise and Ken Mattingly having all backed up Apollo 11 and slated for Apollo 14 , was swapped with Shepard's.

Of the five, only Mattingly was not immune through prior exposure. Normally, if any member of the prime crew had to be grounded, the remaining crew would be replaced as well, and the backup crew substituted, but Duke's illness ruled this out, [25] so two days before launch, Mattingly was replaced by Swigert.

For Apollo, a third crew of astronauts, known as the support crew, was designated in addition to the prime and backup crews used on projects Mercury and Gemini.

Slayton created the support crews because James McDivitt , who would command Apollo 9 , believed that, with preparation going on in facilities across the US, meetings that needed a member of the flight crew would be missed.

Support crew members were to assist as directed by the mission commander. This is meant to symbolize the Apollo flights bringing the light of knowledge to all people.

The mission motto, Ex luna, scientia From the Moon, knowledge , appears. In choosing it, Lovell adapted the motto of his alma mater, the Naval Academy, Ex scientia, tridens From knowledge, sea power.

It did not have to be modified after Swigert replaced Mattingly as it is one of only two Apollo mission insignia—the other being Apollo 11—not to include the names of the crew.

It was designed by artist Lumen Martin Winter , who based it on a mural he had painted for the St. Regis Hotel in New York City.

The mission's motto was in Lovell's mind when he chose the call sign Aquarius for the lunar module, taken from Aquarius , the bringer of water.

Extra propellant was carried as a test since future J missions to the Moon would require more propellant for their heavier payloads.

Also considered part of the spacecraft was the launch escape system which would propel the command module CM to safety in the event of a problem during liftoff, and the Spacecraft—LM Adapter, numbered as SLA, which housed the lunar module LM during the first hours of the mission.

Thereafter, testing and assembly proceeded, culminating with the rollout of the launch vehicle, with the spacecraft atop it, on December 15, The astronauts of Apollo 11 had minimal time for geology training, with only six months between crew assignment and launch; higher priorities took much of their time.

Believing an inspirational teacher was needed, Schmitt arranged for Lovell and Haise to meet his old professor, Caltech 's Lee Silver. The two astronauts, and backups Young and Duke, went on a field trip with Silver at their own time and expense.

This was a change from Apollo 11 and 12, on which the LM made the burn to bring it to the lower orbit.

The change was part of an effort to increase the amount of hover time available to the astronauts as the missions headed into rougher terrain.

The plan was to devote the first of the two four-hour lunar surface extravehicular activities EVAs to setting up the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package ALSEP group of scientific instruments; during the second, Lovell and Haise would investigate Cone crater , near the planned landing site.

They flew in the " Vomit Comet " in simulated microgravity or lunar gravity, including practice in donning and doffing spacesuits.

Dating it would provide information not only about the Moon, but about the Earth's early history. Such material was likely to be available at Cone crater , a site where an impact was believed to have drilled deep into the lunar regolith.

Apollo 11 had left a seismometer on the Moon, but the solar-powered unit did not survive its first two-week-long lunar night.

Developed by the U. The fuel capsule contained about 3. The cask placed around the capsule for transport to the Moon was built with heat shields of graphite and of beryllium, and with structural parts of titanium and of Inconel materials.

Thus, it was built to withstand the heat of reentry into the Earth's atmosphere rather than pollute the air with plutonium in the event of an aborted mission.

A United States flag was also taken, to be erected on the Moon's surface. The structure to fly the flag on the airless Moon was improved from Apollo 12's.

For the first time, red stripes were placed on the helmet, arms and legs of the commander's A7L spacesuit. This was done as after Apollo 11, those reviewing the images taken had trouble distinguishing Armstrong from Aldrin, but the change was approved too late for Apollo Develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment.

Obtain photographs of candidate exploration sites. Some of this photography was to be performed by Swigert as Lovell and Haise walked on the Moon.

None of these was attempted because of the accident. An anomaly occurred when the second-stage, center inboard engine shut down about two minutes early.

Starting with Apollo 10, the vehicle's guidance system was designed to shut the engine down in response to chamber pressure excursions.

The crew settled in for the three-day trip to Fra Mauro. He was found to be entitled to a day extension for being out of the country at the deadline.

Entry into the LM to test its systems had been scheduled for ; when the crew awoke on the third day of the mission, they were informed it had been moved up three hours and was later moved up again by another hour.

A television broadcast was scheduled for ; Lovell, acting as emcee, showed the audience the interiors of Odyssey and Aquarius.

The pressure sensor in one of the SM's oxygen tanks had earlier appeared to be malfunctioning, so Sy Liebergot the EECOM , in charge of monitoring the CSM's electrical system requested that the stirring fans in the tanks be activated.

Normally this was done once daily; a stir would destratify the contents of the tanks, making the pressure readings more accurate. Ninety-five seconds after Swigert activated those switches, [] the astronauts heard a "pretty large bang", accompanied by fluctuations in electrical power and the firing of the attitude control thrusters.

Lovell's initial thought on hearing the noise was that Haise had activated the LM's cabin-repressurization valve, which also produced a bang Haise enjoyed doing so to startle his crewmates but Lovell could see that Haise had no idea what had happened.

Swigert initially thought that a meteoroid might have struck the LM, but he and Lovell quickly realized there was no leak.

Almost everything in the CSM required power. Although the bus momentarily returned to normal status, soon both buses A and B were short on voltage.

Haise checked the status of the fuel cells, and found that two of them were dead. Mission rules forbade entering lunar orbit unless all fuel cells were operational.

When Kranz questioned Liebergot on this he initially responded that there might be false readings due to an instrumentation problem; he was often teased about that in the years to come.

These would be needed for the final hours of the mission, but the remaining fuel cell, already starved for oxygen, was drawing from the surge tank.

A key decision was the choice of return path. But the accident could have damaged the SPS, and the fuel cells would have to last at least another hour to meet its power requirements, so Kranz instead decided on a longer route: the spacecraft would swing around the Moon before heading back to Earth.

As the CM was being shut down, Lovell copied down its guidance system's orientation information and performed hand calculations to transfer it to the LM's guidance system, which had been turned off; at his request Mission Control checked his figures.

Jerry Bostick and other Flight Dynamics Officers FIDOs were anxious both to shorten the travel time and to move splashdown to the Pacific Ocean , where the main recovery forces were located.

One option would shave 36 hours off the return time, but required jettisoning the SM; this would expose the CM's heat shield to space during the return journey, something for which it had not been designed.

The FIDOs also proposed other solutions. While preparing for the burn the crew was told that the S-IVB had impacted the Moon as planned, leading Lovell to quip, "Well, at least something worked on this flight.

The astronauts used the one star available whose position could not be obscured — the Sun. The LM carried enough oxygen, but that still left the problem of removing carbon dioxide , which was absorbed by canisters of lithium hydroxide pellets.

The LM's stock of canisters, meant to accommodate two astronauts for 45 hours on the Moon, was not enough to support three astronauts for the return journey to Earth.

Engineers on the ground devised a way to bridge the gap, using plastic, covers ripped from procedures manuals, duct tape, and other items.

The procedure for building the device was read to the crew by CAPCOM Joseph Kerwin over the course of an hour, and it was built by Swigert and Haise; carbon dioxide levels began dropping immediately.

Lovell later described this improvisation as "a fine example of cooperation between ground and space". The CSM's electricity came from fuel cells that produced water as a byproduct, but the LM was powered by silver-zinc batteries which did not, so both electrical power and water needed for equipment cooling as well as drinking would be critical.

LM power consumption was reduced to the lowest level possible; [] Swigert was able to fill some drinking bags with water from the CM's water tap, [] but even assuming rationing of personal consumption, Haise initially calculated they would run out of water for cooling about five hours before reentry.

This seemed acceptable because the systems of Apollo 11's LM, once jettisoned in lunar orbit, had continued to operate for seven to eight hours even with the water cut off.

Lovell considered having the crew don their spacesuits, but decided this would be too hot. All three astronauts were cold, especially Swigert, who had got his feet wet while filling the water bags and had no lunar overshoes since he had not been scheduled to walk on the Moon.

As they had been told not to discharge their urine to space to avoid disturbing the trajectory, they had to store it in bags.

Water condensed on the walls, though any condensation that may have been behind equipment panels [] caused no problems, partly because of the extensive electrical insulation improvements instituted after the Apollo 1 fire.

Despite the accuracy of the transearth injection, the spacecraft slowly drifted off course, necessitating a correction.

Nevertheless, yet another burn was needed at , using the LM's reaction control system RCS thrusters, for The SM was jettisoned less than half an hour later, allowing the crew to see the damage for the first time, and photograph it.

They reported that an entire panel was missing from the SM's exterior, the fuel cells above the oxygen tank shelf were tilted, that the high-gain antenna was damaged, and there was a considerable amount of debris elsewhere.

The last problem to be solved was how to separate the lunar module a safe distance away from the command module just before reentry.

Grumman , manufacturer of the LM, assigned a team of University of Toronto engineers, led by senior scientist Bernard Etkin , to solve the problem of how much air pressure to use to push the modules apart.

The astronauts applied the solution, which was successful. Later helicopter surveys found no radioactive leakage. Ionization of the air around the command module during reentry would typically cause a four-minute communications blackout.

Paine , but Paine recommended the mission operations team. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published.

We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima , which picked us up, because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were.

Paine to meet us, along with my wife Marilyn, Fred's wife Mary who being pregnant, also had a doctor along just in case , and bachelor Jack's parents, in lieu of his usual airline stewardesses.

Worldwide interest in the Apollo program was reawakened by the incident; television coverage was seen by millions.

Four Soviet ships headed toward the landing area to assist if needed, [] and other nations offered assistance should the craft have to splash down elsewhere.

The rescue received more public attention than any spaceflight to that point, other than the first Moon landing on Apollo There were worldwide headlines, and people surrounded television sets to get the latest developments, offered by networks who interrupted their regular programming for bulletins.

Pope Paul VI led a congregation of 10, people in praying for the astronauts' safe return; ten times that number offered prayers at a religious festival in India.

Even more outside the U. The panel's departure exposed the sector to space, snuffing out the fire, and it probably hit the nearby high-gain antenna, disrupting communications to Earth for 1.

The report questioned the use of Teflon and other materials shown to be flammable in supercritical oxygen, such as aluminum, within the tank.

Nonetheless, the switches Beech used were not rated for 65 volts. The probability of damage from this was low, but it is possible that the fill line assembly was loose and made worse by the fall.

When it would not empty normally, the heaters in the tank were turned on to boil off the oxygen. For Apollo 14 and subsequent missions, the oxygen tank was redesigned, the thermostats being upgraded to handle the proper voltage.

The heaters were retained since they were necessary to maintain oxygen pressure. The stirring fans, with their unsealed motors, were removed, which meant the oxygen quantity gauge was no longer accurate.

This required adding a third tank so that no tank would go below half full. The quantity probe was upgraded from aluminum to stainless steel.

Follow BenFeist for updates. More info at exploreapollo. The Third Lunar Landing Attempt. Search Close. Mission Status. Transcript Mission Milestones Commentary.

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Marshall Space Flight Center 20 de junio de Threshold, engineering journal of power technology.

Archivado desde el original el 13 de diciembre de Consultado el 18 de febrero de Crosslink The Aerospace Corporation 5 1 : Consultado el 2 de diciembre de Xlibris Corporation.

Consultado el 19 de febrero de Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. Consultado el 20 de febrero de El Mundo.

Detroit Free Press. Consultado el 21 de febrero de — via Newspapers. Apollo 13 Lunar Surface Journal. Consultado el 21 de febrero de Life Sciences in Space Research 1 : Constellation Program.

The Globe and Mail. Consultado el 26 de febrero de The Philadelphia Enquirer. Associated Press. Richard Nixon Foundation. The American Presidency Project.

Consultado el 3 de marzo de Universities Space Research Association. Lunar and Planetary Institute. Consultado el 6 de marzo de Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Journal.

Americana Group Publishing. Smithsonian Magazine. Space Flown Artifacts. Archivado desde el original el 15 de septiembre de Consultado el 8 de agosto de The Manhattan Mercury.

Consultado el 6 de marzo de — via Newspapers. Lagniappe John C. Stennis Space Center 5 4 : Boeing News Now. Boeing Company.

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Apollo13 - Warum „Apollo 13“ bei der Nasa als „erfolgreicher Fehlschlag“ gilt

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